Recipes for bread from all around the world

Austria

Brioche Braid

Austria is the homeland to many excellent bakeries whose glory is rooted in the days of the Emperors. Hundreds of types of bread, croissants, buns, and loafs are crafted by master bakers who strew and enhance their masterpieces with a variety of extra ingredients ranging from eggs to butter, vanilla, raisins, or dried fruit. This braid is a typical Austrian specialty that tastes particularly delicious for breakfast.

Ingredients:

  • 500 g flour
  • 380 ml lukewarm milk
  • 30 g fresh yeast
  • 60 g sugar
  • 1 envelope vanilla sugar
  • 60 g butter
  • 3 egg yolks
  • 2 tablespoons rum
  • grated zest of one lemon
  • salt
  • a handful of raisins
  • icing sugar

 

Method:

  1. Warm one third of the milk and dissolve the yeast in it; then add a teaspoon of sugar and four tablespoons of flour. Strew with the remaining flour, cover and let rise in a warm place for approximately 20 minutes.
  2. Whisk the remaining milk combined with butter, vanilla sugar, two egg yolks, lemon zest, and a pinch of salt.
  3. Soak the raisins into rum and live it for few minutes.
  4. Combine the mixture of flour, yeast, and milk with the milk-egg mixture and raisins. Knead into smooth dough. If the dough sticks to the bowl, add some more flour.
  5. Mix in the raisins, cover it again with a kitchen towel and let rise for further 20 minutes.
  6. Divide the dough into four parts and shape them into 40 centimetre long ropes. These should be somewhat thicker at the middle to give the braid the characteristic bulging shape.
  7. Plait the four strips into a braid.
  8. Place the braid onto a baking tray covered with wax paper, cover with a kitchen towel again and let it rise for additional 20 minutes.
  9. Meanwhile, preheat the oven to 180 °C.
  10. Whisk the remaining egg-yolk and brush it over the braid; strew it with icing sugar and bake for approximately one hour until golden brown.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnian Somun

The word »somun« itself alludes to the smell spreading across the streets, mahalas, or čaršijas of Sarajevo. The vendors offer hot somuns on the streets, taking the deliciously smelling flatbreads – good only while hot – from the boxes under steam-covered paper. These flatbreads made of gently kneaded dough are baked at very high temperatures, which results in their characteristic puffed-up shape and a hollow body. The more hollow the middle, the better the somun. It works best with kajmak or topa (salt clotted cream, and molten butter with cream, respectively). In any case, it is indispensible alongside čevapčiči and sliced onion.

Ingredients:

  • 1 kg flour
  • 2 tablespoons dry yeast (2 envelopes or 14 g)
  • 1 tablespoon salt
  • 1 teaspoon sugar
  • 600 – 700 ml warm water
  • black cumin to strew

 

 

Method:

  1. In a small bowl, mix two teaspoons of yeast and 200 ml of lukewarm water; add one tablespoon of flour and a teaspoon of sugar. Then, let the yeast activate.
  2. In a large bowl, combine the flour and salt.
  3. Add the leavening to the flour and knead the dough with 500 ml warm, but not hot, water. The dough should be very soft.
  4. Let the dough rise until double in bulk. Then, knead and let rise again.
  5. When the dough has risen for the second time, cover your hands in flour and split it into 8 balls of same size. Cover the balls with a clean kitchen towel and let them rise some more.
  6. Roll each ball in flour and form into a flatbread; avoid flattening too much, as the somuns may otherwise be too thin. Transfer the somuns on a baking tray covered with waxed paper.
  7. Brush the somuns with water and strew some black cumin on them. Use a knife or a wooden spit to make a rhomboid pattern on the top side.
  8. At first, bake the somuns at 230 degrees; when their colours starts turning golden, reduce temperature to 150 °C and bake for another 10 to 15 minutes.

Czech Republic

Homemade Bread With Beer

The Czechs are famous for their excellent beer and brewing tradition which apparently could not be ignored by the bakers either. Thus, we present a recipe for a simple loaf enhanced with a pint of golden brew. However, although beer is best served ice cold, this recipe suggests it is taken out of the fridge about an hour before using it in this recipe. In fact, it may even be a good idea to warm it up slightly so the yeasts can do their part in the dough more easily.

Ingredients:

  • 1 kg soft flour
  • 70 g fresh yeast
  • 1 dl lukewarm water
  • 500 ml beer
  • 2 teaspoons salt
  • 2 teaspoons cumin
  • 2 teaspoons vinegar and 0.5 dl lukewarm water for glazing

 

 

Method:

  1. Place the flour into a large bowl.
  2. Crumb the yeast into lukewarm water, mix, and add to flour. Then, add the slightly warmed beer, salt, and cumin. Knead briefly.
  3. Place the dough on a floured board and knead until a smooth ball is formed.
  4. Transfer the dough ball into a floured bowl and let it rise for 1/2 hour.
  5. Cover the baking tray with wax paper. Form the dough into a loaf and place it on the wax paper. Let it rise for another 1/2 hour.
  6. Meanwhile, preheat the oven to 250 °C.
  7. Bake for 1/2 hour at 250 °C; then, reduce the temperature to 180 °C and bake for another hour.
  8. While baking, brush the bread several times with a mixture of water and some vinegar.

France

Walnut Bread

The words »bread« and »France« are immediately associated with the Parisian »baguette«, the long slender loafs of crispy bread, jutting out of the shopping bags or baskets. However, baking a baguette takes a highly skilled chef and homemade attempts are normally miles away from the real thing. Therefore, we opted to present another, very special type of French bread. The walnut bread is best served with cheese and wine, or seafood. Walnuts added to the bread dough can also be combined with raisins, or replaced altogether by a mixture of a variety of dried fruit.

Ingredients:

  • 400 g flour
  • 150 ml walnut oil
  • 100 ml water
  • 2 bags dry yeast (14 g or 4 tsp)
  • 1 bags baking powder (2 tsp)
  • 250 g whole walnuts
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • oil for glaze

 

 

Method:

  1. Shell the walnuts.
  2. Combine the dry ingredients – flour, yeast, and baking powder – into a large bowl and mix well.
  3. Add walnut oil, water, and a teaspoon of salt. Mix with the dry ingredients. If required, add some flour to prevent the dough from becoming too sticky.
  4. Add shelled walnuts and slowly knead the dough.
  5. Cover the dough and let it rise for at least three hours near a heat source.
  6. Carefully transfer the risen loaf onto a greased baking tray and brush some oil on top of it.
  7. Put the bread into a cool oven. Then, set the temperature to 250 °C and bake 30 to 40 minutes.

Germany

Rustic Bread

In Germany, over a hundred types of bread are distinguished based on the method of preparation, leavening, and the baking temperature and time. The rustic, or country bread differs from the common types of bread by the special method of preparation, as well as by longer baking time. Normally, it is made of finely ground rye flour. This type of bread is particularly delicious when combined with spicy food, for example the »Bavarian lunch«: sausages, smoked or dried meat, cheese, and beer.

Ingredients:

Sourdough starter (levain):

  • 42 g (1 envelope) fresh yeast
  • 1 l warm water
  • 2 tablespoons sugar
  • 500 g all-purpose flour

Bread dough:

  • 1 kg white rye flour
  • 500 g all purpose flour
  • 2 tablespoons salt
  • 1 teaspoon sugar
  • 5 dl lukewarm water 

 

Method:

  1. Sourdough starter should be prepared two days in advance: crumb the yeast into a large bowl. While whisking, add 1 litre of warm water and two tablespoons of sugar. The water should be slightly warmer than body temperature. Gradually, add all the flour. Whisk until the mixture is completely smooth, without any lumps. Cover with a kitchen towel and leave at room temperature for 24 hours. After 24 hours, knead well, cover again, and let rest for another 24 hours. Thus, the sourdough starter is prepared: slightly sour dough, ready for further use.
  2. In a large bowl, combine the rye flour, all-purpose flour, salt, and sugar. Use a spatula to mix in the sourdough starter; then, add two more cups of warm water. If available, place the dough into a heavy-duty mixer and knead for a few minutes; after that, the mixer will probably no longer be able to handle kneading of such thick dough.
  3. Transfer the dough onto a floured countertop and knead with both hands. If the dough is too hard, add few spoons of water. Fold and pull the dough for 15 to 20 minutes, making sure it is thoroughly kneaded.
  4. Put the dough into a large bowl, cover with a kitchen towel, and let rise for 1 to 2 hours, until doubled in size.
  5. When the dough has risen, scrape it out of the bowl and put it back onto a floured surface.
  6. Knead for about 5 minutes; this is important to activate the gluten. Shape into 1 or 2 long loaves. Place on a shallow baking tray and let rise for another hour, or until your finger leaves an impression when you poke the bread gently.
  7. Preheat the oven to 220 °C. Bake the bread for about 45 minutes for 2 loaves, or 1 1/2 hours if you made one big loaf. Do not worry if the crust is dark. The bread will be delicious and so will the crust. Cool completely before cutting. A half will also freeze well.

Greece

Wheat Bread With Yeast

This is a recipe for one of the numerous traditional Greek breads baked predominantly in the countryside. Today, it can easily be baked in modern electric ovens, just as it used to be baked in traditional outdoor stone ovens that can still be found in numerous Greek villages. These bakers’ ovens were heated by burning firewood which slowly turned into glowing embers. The bread was covered with a metal lid, and embers were placed on top of it. Thus, the bread was baked evenly from above and below.

Ingrediants:

  • 2 kg wheat flour
  • 1 l lukewarm water
  • 50 g fresh yeast
  • 1 tablespoon salt
  • 2 tablespoons sugar (optional)
  • 2 tablespoons olive oil

 

 

Method:

  1. The night before baking, prepare the leaven using half a kilo of flour, sugar, yeast and 2 glasses of lukewarm water; mix until smooth and thick and let it rest overnight.
  2. The following morning, put the flour in a big bowl and add salt. Make a hole in the centre of the flour and put the leaven in.
  3. Take the flour, little by little, from the sides and mix it in, adding lukewarm water as required.
  4. Oil your fingers with olive oil and knead until the dough is smooth and stretchy – dough must not stick to the fingers.
  5. Cover and leave for 10 minutes to rise. Then, knead the dough and shape it into long or round loaves.
  6. Put the loaves on oily pan, cover them with a clean cloth and leave them to rise again for approx. one hour. Remove the cloth and spread some olive oil over them using a small kitchen brush; then, bake for 1 hour at 180 °C.
  7. To make sure whether the bread is ready, knock on the bottom of the loaf; it should sound hollow.

Hungary

Conventional White Bread (Kenyer)

Typical image of a Hungarian landscape would include wide fertile fields of golden wheat swaying in the soft breeze. Bearing this in mind, it should not come as a surprise that Hungarian cuisine relies quite heavily on farinaceous dishes: from strudels, bite-size pastry, to cakes. Bread is among the most popular types of food both in rural and urban Hungarian cuisine. The best kind is probably the one made of white wheat flour, like the one in the recipe below.

Ingredients:

  • 25 g yeast
  • 2 teaspoons sugar
  • 200 ml lukewarm water Sour dough
  • 1 kg white flour (high gluten content)
  • 50 g salt
  • lukewarm water (as much as dough absorbs)

 

 

Method:

  1. Sour dough: add sugar to lukewarm water; then, crumb into this mixture 1 envelope of yeast. Allow to proof into foamy sponge and mix it thoroughly with a handful of flour.
  2. Combine flour and salt in a bowl. Add the risen sour dough and pour water onto it. Then start kneading the dough.
  3. First work it through with your 10 fingertips, and – when its consistency becomes steady – knead by fist strokes until dough separates from side of the bowl.
  4. Cover the dough and set aside to rise for 2 hours.
  5. When it has risen, shape it into a ball or loaf and set aside to rest for two hours, covered.
  6. Only then place into oven where it is baked at moderate temperature.
  7. When the bread is ready, take out of the oven and brush its top with clear water, then put it back into the oven for a few minutes. This will lend the crust a nice glossy sheen.

Iran

Nan-e-Barbari

Perhaps the most famous and widely used bread in Iran, Barbari is a part of the Iranian culture. A piece of Barbari with some feta cheese and a cup of tea form the traditional breakfast in Iran. The secret behind the golden colour of Barbari and its unique smell is in the small amount of baking soda mixed with some water and used to brush Barbari before baking. This mixture is called »romal« in Iran; in this recipe, it is specified as the glaze.

Ingredients:

  • 450 g bread flour
  • 350 ml water
  • 1 envelope active dry yeast (7 g)
  • 1 teaspoon baking powder
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • cornmeal or whole wheat flour for the baking tray
  • poppy seeds or sesame seeds (black sesame seeds will work as well)

Glaze:

  • 1 teaspoon flour
  • 1 teaspoon baking soda
  • 160 ml water

Method:

  1. If using bread machine, add all main ingredients in the order suggested by your bread machine manual and process to form the dough; then, skip to step 6. Otherwise, start from step 2.
  2. Dissolve yeast in 100 ml warm water and let it stand for three minutes.
  3. In a bowl, combine the flour, baking powder, and salt.
  4. Pour the yeast mixture and the rest of the water into the centre of the flour and mix to dough.
  5. Knead for 15 min or until dough becomes smooth and elastic.
  6. Divide dough into 2 round pieces. Slightly sprinkle the baking sheet with cornmeal or whole-wheat flour and transfer the two rolls onto it, making sure enough space is left between them. Cover and leave them in a warm place for an hour and a half or until doubled in bulk.
  7. Meanwhile, mix all glaze ingredients and bring to boil. Let it cook down before using it.
  8. Brush the dough with the glaze.
  9. Dip your fingers in the glaze and punch down the dough to make it flat.
  10. Brush the dough with the glaze again and sprinkle with poppy seeds. Let it stand for 45 minutes.
  11. Meanwhile preheat the oven to 190 °C.
  12. Bake for 30 minutes or until golden.

Italy

La Coppia Ferrarese

The history of this typical bread roots back to the 12th century when it was baked in the shape of loaves, without ornaments or braiding. Later on, there were strict standards for making this type of bread; the bread should not collapse during baking, it defined a specific weight of the bread and it had to carry the seal of the baker for identification. The shape of the »Ferrara couples« today, however, is believed to date from the carnival time in 1536. According to the legend, the host of a dinner to honour the Duke of Ferrara, had these interwoven breads with typical »horns« served to allude to some of the duke's personal adventures.

Ingredients:

Leaven:

  • 200 g flour
  • 1 teaspoon oil
  • 1 teaspoon honey
  • lukewarm water

Dough:

  • 1 kg type »0« flour
  • 350 ml water
  • 60 g pork fat
  • 30 - 40 ml extra-virgin olive oil
  • 100 g leaven
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 1 teaspoon barley malt

Method:

  1. The leaven should be prepared at least 48 hours in advance. Take 200 g of flour, add some lukewarm water, a teaspoon of oil, and a teaspoon of honey. Mix until smooth without lumps, then shape into a ball, place into a bowl, cover with a damp kitchen towel, and leave it to rest for 48 hours. Then, add a few teaspoons of lukewarm water, knead again, and cover with a damp kitchen towel once more. The leaven should be refreshed every week.
  2. Place all the ingredients for the dough into a heavy duty mixer. Turn it on and knead for 15 to 20 minutes.
  3. When done, transfer the dough to a worktop and divide it into balls with a diameter of approximately 5 cm. In Ferrara, special rolling pins and other accessories are used to roll and shape the »couples«. If the dough is to be shaped manually, roll out each ball on floured surface into strips approximately 30 cm in length. Use your palm to press the dough like the one for strudel, while rolling it into cone-shaped horns. Then, braid couples of such rolls together to obtain the characteristic shape of the couples: four cone-shaped horns interwoven in the middle.
  4. When shaped, transfer the »couples« on a wooden board, cover with a kitchen towel and let it rise for an hour or hour and a half.
  5. Bake in a preheated oven with the heat generated in the bottom.
  6. Each piece should weigh from 80 to 250 grams when done.
  7. The Ferrara couples will also freeze well.

Kazakhstan

Lepyoshka

The Kazakhstanis eat a lot of bread. The most popular kind are characteristically shaped small loafs or buns called »lepyoshka« or »bulocka«; festivities and ceremonies, however, are a time for »baursaki«.

Ingredients:

  • 400 g flour
  • 15 g fresh yeast
  • 125 ml water
  • 125 ml milk
  • salt
  • 1 whisked egg for glaze

Method:

  1. Dissolve the yeast in lukewarm water and some milk.
  2. Mix the flour and salt in a bowl. Make a hole in the middle and pour the yeast with milk and water into it.
  3. Knead the dough until it is flexible and smooth.
  4. Split it into four smaller loaves, cover them, and let them rest for 15 minutes.
  5. When the loaves have risen, shape them in such way that the edges remain thicker than the middle. This will result in the characteristic shape of the »lepyoshka« seen in the photo. The diameter of each »lepyoshka« should be about 15 centimetres. Use a fork or a spoon to make ornaments along the inner edge.
  6. Brush the loaves with whisked egg and bake in the oven at 180°C. Traditionally they were baked in two pans, where one served as the lid for the other, buried in hot ashes and embers.

Middle East

Pita Bread

Pita bread is served with just about every meal in the Middle East. It can be used for dipping, or to make delicious sandwiches in the pocket. In the Middle East, pita is made in brick ovens, where very high heat can be achieved. It is quite hard to duplicate in a home kitchen, but this recipe, combined with high heat, comes rather close.

Ingredients:

  • 400 g flour
  • 1 tablespoon skim milk powder
  • 6 tablespoons oil
  • 1 tablespoon dry yeast (7 g)
  • 1-2 teaspoons sugar
  • 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • 350 ml water
  • oil or fat for the pan

Method:

  1. Combine the yeast with a few tablespoons of lukewarm water and add sugar.
  2. Place the flour, milk powder, and salt into a large bowl and mix well.
  3. Combine all ingredients: add the yeast mixture, some oil, and water, into the flour bowl; mix well. More flour or water may be required, depending on the absorbency of the flour.
  4. Knead dough briefly and divide it into 18 egg sized balls.
  5. Place on a floured surface, cover and let them rest for 15-30 minutes. In the mean time, heat up a large frying pan with a diameter of approx. 24 cm.
  6. Roll one ball of dough out and cook it in a frying pan at high heat until large bubbles start to form.
  7. Flip the pita over and cook the other side for a few more minutes.
  8. Flatten it out with a spatula.
  9. While cooking the remaining pitas, keep the ones already cooked warm (wrap in a towel or place in a ziploc bag).
  10. Pitas will freeze well.

Montenegro

Flat Cake In The Sać

Meat, cakes, and pies baked under a »sać« taste extraordinary well. A »crepulja« is a shallow clay bowl with a hole in the middle. Before the bread is placed in it, it must be preheated to a high temperature. Then, the hot »crepulja« is lifted with an appropriate hook; dough is placed into it and covered with the »sać« – a metal lid shaped as a shallow bell, which is covered with ashes and glowing charcoal. Thus, the flat cake is baked from below, due to the hot »crepulja«, and above, with the heat of the embers on the »sać«.

Ingredients:

  • 1 kg flour
  • 1 teaspoon baking soda
  • 400 – 450 ml lukewarm water
  • 2 flat teaspoons salt
  • oil or butter for the baking tray

Method:

  1. Sift the flour, make a hole in on top and add the baking soda and salt into it. Mix well.
  2. Pour in the lukewarm water and knead to dough. The dough for the flat cake is somewhat harder than the one for the bread.
  3. On a floured board, shape the dough into a flat cake and place it into the greased »crepulja« – be careful not to get burned.
  4. Cover the dough with »sać« (the bell-shaped lid), and cover the entire set with ashes and glowing embers; cook for 25 to 30 minutes.
  5. When done, carefully remove the »sać« and sprinkle the flat cake with some cold water. This is referred to as the »washing«. Remove the flat cake from the »crepulja« and wrap it into a clean kitchen towel.

Romania

Potato Bread

Potato bread is typical predominantly of the central and western part of Romania. It used to be baked once per week in clay ovens, for the entire family. Although it is mostly prepared in modern ovens today, there are still villages in Romania where the farms offer traditional potato bread loaves: large, round, crispy, and delicious.

Ingredients:

  • 1 kg potatoes
  • 2 kg flour
  • 100 g yeast
  • 2 tablespoons sugar
  • 1 tablespoon salt
  • 1 – 1.5 l water

Method:

  1. Crumb the yeast into a bowl, add some warm water and sugar and mix until the yeast and the sugar are dissolved.
  2. Boil the potatoes and peel them while still hot. Mash it into purée.
  3. Sift the flour into a large bowl. Then, add the mashed potatoes, leavening starter, and warm water; finally, add the salt.
  4. Start kneading. Knead until the dough is uniform, flexible, and smooth.
  5. Cover the bowl and let it rise for about an hour.
  6. Flour a large baking tray and place the loaves onto it.
  7. Bake at 220 °C for about an hour or until done.

Scandinavia

Ciabatta

Ciabatta originally derives from Northern Italy but is most likely the most popular bread in Scandinavia. Both the crust and the core are soft; however, they turn wonderfully crisp when heated. The thin crust and juicy and airy core are perfectly tuned with olive oil and tomatoes. Although ciabatta will only stay fresh for a day, this hardly poses a problem; it is so good that it will probably run out even earlier.

Ingredients:

  • 375 g pizza flour
  • 100 g whole-wheat flour
  • 100 g all-purpose wheat flour
  • 25 g fresh yeast
  • 500 ml warm water
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 3 tablespoons olive oil
  • black olives (optional, if available)

Method:

  1. Dissolve the yeast in water.
  2. Sift the flour into a large bowl and add the salt and olive oil. Then, add the yeast mixture.
  3. If you decide to add olives, remove the stones, chop them, and add to the flour.
  4. Knead into smooth dough and let it rise for three hours.
  5. When risen, knead the dough again and shape it into a long loaf. Let it rise for another 45 minutes.
  6. Preheat the oven to 225 °C.
  7. Strew the loaf with flour, transfer it to the baking tray and bake for 20 to 25 minutes on the lower shelf position.

Slovenia

Home Made Country Bread

In Slovenia, homemade bread played a major role in various ceremonies and festivities. On major holidays, bread, a symbol of sanctity and welfare, would be placed on the table covered with a white tablecloth. In Slovenia, the country bread was made of rye; the crust was dark and crispy, while the core was juicy and thick. One vital ingredient of homemade country bread is the so-called mother yeast, which is actually a piece of the dough from the previous baking. The housewives kneaded the dough in special wooden troughs; it was left to rise in round wicker baskets, and it was baked in glowing hot bakers’ ovens.

Ingredients:

  • 400 g rye flour
  • 500 g wheat whole wheat flour
  • 100 g corn flour
  • 70 g fresh yeast
  • 5 g sugar
  • crushed anise and coriander seeds
  • 10 g salt
  • 400 ml warm water
  • mother yeast (see explanation above)

Method:

  1. The night before baking, use the »mother yeast« to prepare the leavened base for the dough, as follows: sift the flour into a bowl and place and keep warm. Make a hole in the middle of the flour bulk and pour warm water into it. Add the soaked »mother yeast« and mix it with one quarter of the flour into thick dough. Cover and let rise overnight.
  2. The following day, add as much water as required, add salt, and knead well into flexible and smooth dough.
  3. Cover and let rise for 2 to 2 1/2 hours.
  4. Shape the dough into a round loaf. Cover the basket with a cloth napkin, strew some flour on it, and place the loaf on top. Cover again and let rise for another hour.
  5. Transfer the risen dough to a baking tray, strew with flour and brush with lukewarm water three times to prevent the crust from cracking during baking.
  6. Homemade bread is best baked in a heated baker's oven. Preheat your oven to 220 °C and bake the bread for an hour and a half or longer, depending on the size of the loaf.
  7. When done, place the loaf into an empty wicker basket and let it cool down.

UK

Traditional Wholemeal Country Loaf

The British adore bread but the majority of them buys it rather than bake it - around 12 million loaves every day. White bread remains the nation’s favourite with whole meal a close second. However, in line with our continuing search for a healthier lifestyle there is a growing trend for baking our own and the traditional whole meal is not only very tasty, it is really simple to make.

Ingredients:

  • 500 g organic whole meal flour
  • 1 teaspoon dried yeast
  • 1 teaspoon free flow salt
  • 1 tablespoon extra virgin olive oil
  • dessert spoon runny honey
  • 360 ml tepid water

Method:

  1. Mix all the ingredients in a bowl.
  2. Knead and leave to rise for around 45 minutes or until the dough is soft and has risen.
  3. Preheat your oven to 200 °C.
  4. Place the dough in a baking tin and put in the oven for around 35-40 minutes.

Ukraine

Palianytsia

Palianytsia, typical Ukrainian buns made of unleavened dough made with sour milk, have symbolized happiness and success. Round-shaped buns, however, symbolize the hospitality of the family.

Ingredients:

  • 600 g wheat flour
  • 500 ml sour milk or kefir
  • 1 tablespoon sugar
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 1 teaspoon baking soda
  • 1 – 2 teaspoons vinegar
  • 1 tablespoon poppy seeds, sesame seeds, or cumin seeds to strew

Method:

  1. Pour the sour milk or kefir into a bowl. Add sugar, salt, and baking soda dissolved in vinegar.
  2. Gradually mix in the flour and knead the ingredients into smooth dough.
  3. Transfer the dough onto a floured worktop and roll it 8 to 10 mm thick. Strew the dough with poppy, sesame, or cumin seeds to taste.
  4. Cut the dough into pieces of various shapes.
  5. Place the palianytsias on a greased baking tray and bake in a preheated oven at 230 °C. The bread should be done in 10 to 15 minutes – when the crust turns golden brown.
  6. Palianytsias taste best with milk or tea.

Uzbekistan

Uzbek Lepyoshka - »Patir«

The Uzbek lepyoshka called »patir« is still baked in huge coppers called »tandir«. Fire is made in the copper; when it heats up, buns and other delicacies are pressed against the copper walls, thus baking them slowly. Lepyoshkas are characteristic for their shape: thinner in the middle, thicker towards the outside, with ornaments along the outer edge and embossed pattern of a glass bottom in the middle. The diameter of a lepyoshka is normally about 30 centimetres.

Ingredients:

  • 1 kg flour
  • 250 ml milk
  • 40-50 g fresh yeast
  • 2 teaspoons salt
  • 300 ml vegetable oil (instead of the traditional sheep fat)

Method:

  1. Crumb the yeast into milk and mix until it dissolves.
  2. Combine the flour and salt in a bowl. Make a hole in the middle and add the yeast and milk mixture. Then, add the oil.
  3. Knead the dough until it is flexible and smooth.
  4. For a tandir-baked patir, the dough is normally split into 300 to 500 g loaves; in our case, however, the patir lepyoshka will be oven-baked; therefore, the dough will be divided into 100 g buns. These should be somewhat thinner; however, the traditional shape should be retained: the buns are round, thicker along the edge and thinner in the middle.
  5. Before baking, let the lepyoshkas rise for 15 minutes.
  6. Bake in a preheated oven for 20 minutes at 180 °C.